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Diet, also referred to as dietary plan, is a form of nutrition, which defines total amount of consumed food. Dietary plan might vary depending on religion, personal beliefs, health status, weight assumptions or occupied region of the world. Perfect diet includes carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals and vitamins absorption in suitable quantities. Proper eating habits are crucial for maintaining good condition of body and mind, since nutrients have an influence on mood and are regulating every process inside human organism.
Diseases related to dietary plan
Bad composed diet may result in many serious disorders, or at least increases the risk of obtaining them. It can also reduce performance of the body, which further causes sleep disorders and fatigue. However, the most common diseases related to a bad diet are diabetes and obesity. Apart from them, bad dietary plan can also cause cardiovascular, bones, skin and gastrointestinal tract disorders.
The most common diseases partially caused by poor diet include:
- Heart disease
How to compose healthy dietary plan
Good diet should be composed individually, based on organism’s daily demands. The main factors include current weight, level of daily activities, sex, age and health status. Those components will determine recommended daily intake of calories. Calories are units of energy, thus they serve as a fuel for human organism. Estimated daily intake of calories, according to the United States Department of Agriculture, can be found in the table below.
|Ages 2 to 8||1000-1400 kcal||1000-2000 kcal||1000-1400 kcal||1000-1800 kcal|
|Ages 8 to 15||1400-2200 kcal||2000-3000 kcal||1400-1800 kcal||1800-2400 kcal|
|Ages 15 to 35||2200-2400 kcal||3000-3200 kcal||1800-2000 kcal||2200-2400 kcal|
|Ages 35 to 50||2200-2400 kcal||2800-3000 kcal||2000 kcal||2200 kcal|
|Ages over 50||2000-2200 kcal||2400-2800 kcal||1600-1800 kcal||2000-2200 kcal|
In addition, dietary plan should also be composed of:
- Vegetables – especially those with high density of vitamins, minerals and fiber. For instance broccoli, carrot, onion, kale, spinach and squash
- Fruits – delicious way to provide necessary nutrients, especially vitamins. Fruits rich in vitamins are e.g. melons (vitamin A), oranges (vitamin C), kiwifruit (vitamin C) or blackberries (vitamin E and C).
- Proteins – which are delivered mainly from meat and beans. Their intake is based mainly on weight, and recommended amount is around 0.8-1.5 grams of protein per one kilogram of body mass. It needs to be remembered, that too high protein intake is not beneficial for organism. Products full of proteins include fish, chicken, beans, soy and certain cuts of pork.
- Carbohydrates – they should be gathered from healthy foods, like whole grains, vegetables, beans and fruits, because such carbohyrates are active for a long time.
- Fats – which needs to be selected wisely, because some of them are not healthy. Profitable and healthy fats can be found in fish, nuts like hazelnut or almond and raspberries.
What is more, there are several restrictions that need to be made in order to maintain proper diet. Trans fats present in processed foods should be avoided and sugar intake has to be reduced. Sleep interruptions made by nighttime eating are also not healthy, and obviously, strong willpower is one of the key elements to preserve proper dietary plan.
Optional supplementation is required, when particular nutrients are not delivered in suitable amounts, or your organism is not working properly, leading to either excess or insufficiency of those elements. Supplements may contain, for instance, additional vitamins or minerals.