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Epididymitis and orchitis are the problems, in which, there is an infection causing inflammation in its area.
Infections cause epididymitis and orchitis usually are associated with age, medical history, and sexual activity.
Before puberty, these problems are caused by intestinal bacteria such as E. coli, and that get into the bladder or other places in the body. In many cases, irregularities arising at birth, make the urinary tract is more susceptible to infections, that ultimately are also spreading in the epididymis and testis.
In sexually active men, the most common cause of inflammation of the epididymis and testicles are sexually transmitted diseases like chlamydia and gonorrhea. Typically, the infection starts from the urethra, and then spread back into the genital tract, to attack the epididymis and testis. The symptoms may occur in this case even after a few months after sexual contact.
People who are at risk are those who have suffered similar infections and had prostate problems. Also, certain treatments, examination or catheterization may contribute to the emergence of the problem. Typically, they involve the transfer of intestinal bacteria into the urethra or bladder.
Much more rarely, can appear epididymitis and orchitis caused by infections spread via the bloodstream. A non-infectious form of the disease can occur in men treated with cardiac medicine amiodarone, due to excessive physical exertion, etc.
The symptoms of epididymitis and orchitis
- pain, swelling and tenderness in the scrotum – also on only one side of the scrotum,
- pain that is initially intense only in the back of one nucleus,
- the pain of whole nuclei,
- lying scrotum,
- pain in the groin,
- problems with walking,
- redness and sensible heat in the painful area,
- burning sensation during urination,
- accumulation of watery fluid in the scrotum,
- fever, chills and burning sensation during urination,
- clear – white or yellow secretions from the tip of the penis.
Diagnosis and treatment of epididymitis and orchitis
Diagnosis typically involves the assessment of the medical history of the patient, and, of emerging symptoms. It is also a physical examination of the genital area. Are carried out also:
- urine test – chemical analysis of urine
- evaluation of urine for the emergence of bacteria,
- lab testing of a swab from the urethra or discharge from the penis,
- blood tests – to the presence of infections associated with sexually transmitted diseases.
Pain symptoms in the case of epididymitis and orchitis may be so severe that the doctor will have to verify whether there are any other threatening health and even life complications like the painful twisting of the testes.
In most cases, mild epididymitis and orchitis caused by a bacterial infection disappeared within one to three days after the start of antibiotic therapy, but swelling of the testes and scrotum may take up to several weeks.
To reduce the risk of infection, it is important to avoid sexually transmitted diseases by using condoms.
Treatment usually encompasses the use of antibiotics. However, it is also recommended:
- lifting the scrotum placed under it a towel,
- the use of cold compresses, to soothe swelling,
- drink large amounts of water,
- the use of painkillers and anti-inflammatory in the treatment of pain and inflammation.