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Hypospadias is a condition in which the urethral meatus is not at the top of the penis. Instead of this, the opening is located anywhere along the length the underside of the penis. The urethra in case of hypospadias may be at the end of the penis, but also in the vicinity of the mid-shaft of the penis, and even very close to the scrotum.
The causes of hypospadias
Hypospadias may have its origins in the problems with the hormones, sometimes is also that it is a problem genetic. The critical stages of the formation of the penis, held between 9 and 12 weeks of pregnancy, and usually at this juncture of fetal life may appear defective creation of the urethra and foreskin for example due to hormonal problems.
Hypospadias is usually noticeable after birth when the urethral meatus is in the wrong place, or, the foreskin is formed in an unusual way. Often it is the appearance of prepuce draws attention to the problem. However, a not always abnormal appearance of prepuce testifies to the disease, as the urethral meatus, can be positioned correctly. There are also cases in which the appearance of the foreskin hides a problem with the location of the urethral meatus.
Hypospadias is usually treated surgically, and its purpose is to move the channel of the urethra to the vicinity of the end of the penis. An operation has four main steps:
- straightening the shaft;
- extending the channel of urine;
- placement of urethral meatus on the length of the penis;
- circumcision or the foreskin reconstruction.
There are cases in which the operation must proceed in several stages. The treatment is undertaken most often in full-term and healthy boys aged 6 to 12 months, but it can be performed at any age, even in adults. If the problem is additionally a small penis before treatments, sometimes it is used the testosterone hormone therapy.
A successful procedure for the treatment of hypospadias should be effective for life. Carrying out the treatment in the youngest children, it seems to be associated with reduced discomfort, because the baby did not even remember. In some cases, is also necessary to perform treatment of bladder contractions.
Complications of surgery can occur:
- a hole, so-called fistula,
- keloids may form around the canal or urethral opening, which can interfere with urination.
Most of the problems of about treatment occur most frequently within a few months after the operation, which usually requires no additional procedures. Also important are regular control examinations, which help avoid any possible problems in the future.