Eye diseases


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Eye diseases are among the health problems that in many cases can be easily treated, often arbitrarily pass, but tend to be a situation that requires professional care. As the organ of sight is extremely delicately built mechanism, it is exposed to numerous diseases and damage, both those are related to the different elements of the construction of the eye and the optic nerve as well as issues of surrounding organs like the eyelids, conjunctiva, eye muscles and the lachrymal organs.

Abnormal functioning of eyes and eye diseases are diagnosed and treated by ophthalmologists. Problems of the eye may refer to the eye directly, or be part of a systemic problem, as exemplified by cataracts associated with diabetes, kidney disease, or eye problems during pregnancy.

Each part of the eye has its unique function. Light reflected from objects gets into the eye through the cornea, a transparent, curved layer located in front of the iris, and then directed towards the pupil (black dot in the middle of the eye). The muscles surrounding the pupil open it and close it by controlling the amount of light that gets into the eye. The light is then focused onto the retina – a layer of tissue in the back of the eye where the image is formed inverted. Photoreceptors located in the retina transmit signals to the brain through a bundle of nerve fibers called optic nerve to produce a picture.

Eye diseases – types

The complicated mechanism of the eye makes it quite often seemingly trivial problems may signal serious eye diseases. An extremely delicate eye is susceptible to allergic factors, unhygienic conditions, systemic diseases or problems associated with aging.

The most common eye diseases include:

  • Glaucoma, which is associated with increased intraocular pressure, which damages the optic nerve and retina;
  • Cataracts from various reasons – we can distinguish types such as congenital cataract, senile, resulting from injury, diabetic or secondary;
  • Keratitis, viral or fungal keratitis associated with the appearance of infiltrates and ulcers;
  • Inflammatory sclera, often related to connective tissue diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis;
  • Inflammation of the iris and the choroid;
  • Retinal detachment;
  • Macular degeneration – the most common cause of blindness acquired;
  • Retinopathies related to diabetic or preterm;
  • The dislocation of the lens;
  • Optic neuritis, as well as optic nerve atrophy;
  • Eye cancer diseases like melanoma, germline retinitis;
  • Others.

Eye diseases associated with visual impairments can be classified as:

  • farsightedness and nearsightedness;
  • astigmatism;
  • presbyopia.

Diseases of the eye organ – causes and symptoms

Ocular problems may be related to various kinds of reasons even as trauma, infection, aging or cancer.

Eye diseases are most often associated with disorders of one of the elements involved in the complicated machinery of view. The first signals that should raise anxiety can be a problem with visual clarity – for example, when reading a newspaper, when the letters begin to smear when we feel pain or burning, sometimes we suffer from headaches. These symptoms are often ignored by us because we associate them with fatigue or age. Many diseases of the visual system are also manifested by redness, rash, tearing, etc.


Some problems with vision occur with age, but also diseases of the eye are sometimes heralded major disorders as atherosclerosis, cardiovascular problems, and diabetes, and may carry constant changes in the eye. Symptoms of eye disease should not be underestimated, thinking that they will go away themselves. What is important is that many of the eye diseases do not show any symptoms at first and are painless until the problem becomes very advanced.

Diagnosis and treatment of eye diseases

The diagnosis begins with a medical history that describes your age, occupation, type of work, medication, nutrition, and general lifestyle. It is also necessary to draw attention to health problems such as hypertension, diabetes or cancer as well as the history of family diseases.

The eye examination begins with seeing the eyelids, conjunctiva, the front of the eye, and then the doctor performs further eye examinations, examining every element of the eye. The treatment itself depends on the type of problem detected, can be operated conservatively or surgically. The first method mainly consists of pharmacological treatment through antibiotics as well as hormonal treatment. In the case of surgery, the most commonly used are corneal transplants. In diseases associated with visual impairments, in turn, often helps glasses or lenses.

To maintain the health of eyes for a long time, it is best to prevent disease by providing the body with the necessary nutrients, avoiding overburdening eyes eyesight and providing adequate protection, e.g., by wearing sunglasses with filters.

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