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Nearsightedness or myopia is a vision problem that is a common refraction error, in which close objects are visible, while distant objects appear blurred and less pronounced.
When we look at an object, light rays reflected from it, and then pass through the cornea and lens of the eye that bends and focuses it onto the retina at the back of the eye. If our vision is correct, the rays are focused directly on the surface of the retina, but in the case of myopia, they do not extend to the back of the eye, which causes them to focus at a point in front of the retina rather than directly on its surface. This process makes the objects in the distance are blurred our vision, and we see them vaguely.
Nearsightedness can also result from errors of the cornea, which is abnormally curved, and when the eyeball is too long or the lens is too thick. They tend to be cases in which myopia is a combination of the problems of the cornea, the lens and the length of the eyeball.
The exact cause of significant problems with myopia cases in recent years is not known, it is believed, however, that it may have to do with fatigue of the eyes from excessive use of computer and other enhanced vision tasks, combined with a genetic predisposition to myopia.
Symptoms of myopia
The problem of myopia is manifested when there is a blurry vision of things from a distance, whereas only in the near distance they become clear. If we understand the content of the text in the book, but we have a problem reading the information from the remote monitor whether the sign on the road, it may be a sign of short-sightedness.
Other symptoms of myopia include frequent blinking, eye strain, and headaches. Eye strain while driving, or while playing sports, it can also be associated with myopia.
Short-sightedness occurs due to too long eyeball, as well as the concentration of light in the cornea and lens of the eye. Some cases involve a combination of these factors.
Myopia problems are most likely to begin in childhood, as a rule, they are linked to genetic predisposition. This issue stabilizes in early adulthood, but sometimes it progresses with age.
Treatment and diagnosis of myopia
A specialist that is diagnosing myopia usually performs a visual acuity test. In the case of abnormal vision, the doctor uses a retinoscope to evaluate the eye to determine if refraction occurs.
Short-sightedness can be corrected with glasses, contact lenses or refractive surgery. It all depends on the severity of the problem. Wearing glasses or lenses may be limited to situations when we need it (e.g., while driving) or require constant use.
Refractive surgery can reduce and even eliminate the need to wear eyeglasses or contact lenses, and the most common procedure is using an exquisite laser. There are also other methods of treatment of myopia as established permanently implantable lenses.
Regular eye examinations and appropriate contact lenses or eyeglasses are required for the treatment and prophylaxis of nearsightedness.
In most cases, myopia is only a minor inconvenience and pose little threat to the health of the eye, but sometimes it can be severe and progressive, causing the degenerative condition.
Aggressive short-sightedness is a rare degenerative eye disease, most often it arises on the genetic background. It occurs most frequently in childhood, and in extreme and severe cases can lead to blindness. People suffering from this type of myopia have an increased risk of retinal detachment and the appearance of other changes in the back of the eye, including bleeding in the eye and abnormal growth of blood vessels. Aggressive short-sightedness can also increase the risk of cataracts.