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Biliary dyskinesia is a condition that affects the sphincter of Oddi, gallbladder and bile ducts, changing the speed and intensity of the secretion of bile.
Biliary dyskinesia, can be divided into two types:
- Hyperkinetic type – in this embodiment the disease, bile enters the gallbladder too liberally and too often, which causes a sharp pain in the right side of the ribs. This pain usually takes a long time and often is triggered by strong emotions, anxiety or emotional exhaustion. In women, this type of physical impairment of the biliary tract is associated with certain phases of the menstrual cycle. A hyperkinetic form of the problem is likely to affect children and adolescents.
- Hypokinetic type, in contrast, is more common in middle-aged and older. This kind of dyskinesia of the gallbladder and bile ducts usually lasts a long time, though to a large extent depends on the individual characteristics of the patient. Often even an experienced doctor will not be able to make a correct diagnosis only by symptoms.
Biliary dyskinesia, a condition a reproducible, and ultimately can lead to inflammation and the formation of gallstones.
Dyskinesia, cholecystitis, should be distinguished from sphincter of Oddi motility disorders, gastrointestinal disorders, however, can also be carried out to disturbances in the motility of the biliary tract.
Problems with biliary dyskinesia might accompany gallstones, chronic cholecystitis, acute or chronic pancreatitis and other disorders of the digestive system.
The symptoms of biliary dyskinesia
- pain in the right side around your ribs,
- sharp or dull pain in the right side around your ribs in stressful situations or after a spicy or fatty meal – pain caused by desynchronization of the gallbladder contraction and relaxation of the sphincter, it can be extensive and guided to the right forearm,
- bitter taste in the mouth, which appears in the morning – caused by the reverse flow of bile from the duodenum into the stomach and the esophagus associated with changes in the mobility of the lower esophageal sphincter, as is often accompanied by biliary dyskinesia,
- lack of energy and depression – may be caused by the body’s abnormal reaction dysfunction, gastro-oesophageal reflux,
- nausea and vomiting – may be the cause of cholestasis, and be due to a spasm of the sphincter of Oddi,
- bad breath – a symptom associated with a reverse flow of bile in the stomach and esophagus,
- other symptoms like diarrhea, constipation, malaise, loss of appetite, sleep problems, decreased libido or problems with the menstrual cycle in women.
Diagnosis and treatment of biliary dyskinesia
Diagnosis of disorders of biliary motility is based on tests, such as:
- biochemical blood tests,
- ultrasound examination of the gallbladder and liver,
- testing of samples of bile from the gallbladder performed on an empty stomach
- study of secretin – associated with the use of the hormone secretin, which stimulates the secretion of bile,
Treatment of the disease requires the recognition of the type of dyskinesia. Depending on whether it will be hyperkinetic or hypokinetic, the treatment will have proceeded differently.
In general, it is recommended to include:
- eating at least four meals per day (preferably at similar hours each day); these meals should be a slight, rich in protein, nutrients, and fiber,
- avoid excessive physical exertion and mental effort, as they may cause a worsening of the disease.
For the hyperkinetic form of the illness it is also recommended:
- Diet limiting reliable products, meat, vegetable oils, pure carbohydrates and flour products, alcohol and carbonated soft drinks; The diet should be further based on cooked meals, light and gently condiments, and rich in fruit (especially berries).
- Pharmacotherapy – are used smooth muscle relaxants that help to prevent and treat muscle spasms of the biliary tract, but in combination with gastroesophageal reflux disease, they may exacerbate the symptoms.
- Using of substances that stimulate the secretion of bile.
- Drinking large amounts of water, preferably at room temperature before meals.
With the hypokinetic disorders form are used:
- A diet rich in choleretic products, such as cream, butter, vegetable oils, eggs, brown bread, vegetables.
- Supplementation of an extract of aloe vera or ginseng.
- Drinking water and herbal teas.
Sometimes it is necessary surgical treatment, in which the gallbladder is removed.