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Diffuse peritonitis is a disease that affects the inner tissue of the abdominal wall and abdominal organs due to infection with bacteria or fungi.
The symptoms of diffuse peritonitis
The first signs of peritonitis is usually a lack of appetite and nausea, as well as dull abdominal pain, that quickly turns into a lasting and intense pain, which further exacerbated by any movement.
In addition to these symptoms may also occur:
- excessive abdominal tenderness,
- fever and chills,
- fluid accumulation in the abdomen (ascites),
- a strong urge,
- problems with urination, including its small amount,
- difficulty in defecation and problems with the passing of gases,
The causes of diffuse peritonitis
- sudden peritonitis – an infection that intensively develops in the peritoneum,
- and secondary peritonitis which develops as a result of injury or infection in the abdominal cavity.
Both types of diseases are an equally serious threat to health and life.
Typical factors which contribute to the appearance of spontaneous peritonitis are:
- Liver disease, including cirrhosis of the liver, often resulting in an accumulation of fluid in the abdomen (ascites), which increases the risk of infection.
- Renal failure and related peritoneal dialysis – most frequently because of contamination by the catheter, occurs here the formation of inflammation.
The secondary peritonitis occurs through:
- cracks appendicitis, diverticulitis, or stomach ulcers;
- chronic diseases of the digestive system as Crohn’s disease or inflammation of the diverticulum,
- pelvic inflammatory disease,
- perforation of the stomach, intestines, and gallbladder,
- abdominal trauma, such as injuries resulting from a knife or gunshot wound,
- the appearance of non-infectious causes peritonitis as irritants type of the bile or foreign substances in the abdomen.
Diffuse peritonitis can be extremely dangerous, as it may lead to serious (even fatal) complications, such as sepsis or septic shock, which causes a sudden drop in blood pressure, organ failure and death.
Diagnosis and treatment of diffuse peritonitis
Since the disease is a real threat to life, rapid diagnosis is crucial. Therefore, if there are symptoms such as tenderness and tension in the abdominal cavity, is indicated for the immediately contact a doctor.
To diagnose the diffuse peritonitis are performed blood and urine tests, and imaging tests like ultrasound or computed tomography. If there are ascites, the physician may perform the procedure paracentesis, examining the fluid regarding abdominal infections.
Treatment of diffuse peritonitis requires immediate administration of intravenous antibiotics or antifungal medicines used to treat infections. Accompany them can also the use of intravenous fluids, medications to help keep correct blood pressure along with complementary nutrients.
Dialysis patients due to peritonitis may require different methods of dialysis like hemodialysis.
Often it is necessary to perform the surgery – particularly if peritonitis is the result of inflammation of the gall appendicitis, perforation of stomach ulcers or diverticulitis. Infected tissues are then removed. Crucial after the surgical procedure is to monitor the patient for signs of sepsis and septic shock.