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Polycystic kidney disease is a condition in which, on the kidney, are formed cysts. The disease is the most common inherited disorder in which the forms on the kidneys fluid-filled cysts interfere with kidney function, and ultimately that may damage them.
- autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease,
- autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease,
- acquired kidney cysts.
Polycystic kidney disease is one of the most common causes of renal failure, may also be associated with cysts in the liver and other serious complications.
The symptoms of polycystic kidney disease
A number of cases of the disease does not show any symptoms, but when the cystic kidneys increase to 0.5 inches or more, then may appear symptoms such as:
- abdominal pain and tenderness,
- blood in the urine,
- frequent urination,
- pain on the sides,
- the frequent urinary tract infections,
- kidney stones,
- the sensitivity of the skin, which is more susceptible to bruising,
- paleness of skin,
- general tiredness,
- the irregularities on the nails.
In children with autosomal recessive polycystic kidney function may also occur a high blood pressure and frequent urination. Symptoms, however, are ambiguous and may also apply to other diseases, so it is important to seek medical advice.
Polycystic kidney disease is an inherited condition, but it happens that develops in people with severe kidney problems.
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is the most common type of the illness because it represents up to 90% of cases. The risk of developing this disease is 50% if the parent has a defective gene. This type of illness is often the adults and is characterized by between 30 and 40 years of age, although sometimes the cases where the condition is apparent in it as a child.
Autosomal recessive type of a disease, in turn, a less common variant of polycystic kidney disease and, like the first is inherited. This kind of illness, however, requires that the both parents bearers of the disease gene. Carriers usually do not show any symptoms. Recessive polycystic kidney disease is divided into four types:
- perinatal – already present at birth,
- the neonatal – appear in the first month of life,
- infantile, manifested when the child is between 3 to 12 months,
- youthful form occurs after completion of the first year of life.
Acquired polycystic kidney disease is not genetic variation and usually manifests itself later in life. Most commonly affect people who already have other kidney problems like renal failure or apply to individuals who undergo dialysis.
Diagnosis and treatment of polycystic kidney disease
Inherited forms of the disease are assessed based on family medical history, and also, are carried out full blood tests, with particular emphasis on anemia or signs of infection. Examine is also the urine for the presence of blood, bacteria or proteins.
All three types of polycystic kidney disease are evaluated by imaging tests, in which the physician is looking for renal cysts, as well as on liver or other organs. Is performed an abdominal ultrasound, abdominal CT scan, MRI and an intravenous pyelogram.
Complications of the disease may include:
- the weakening of the walls of arteries manifested as aortic aneurysms or brain,
- the liver cysts,
- cysts in the pancreas and testis,
- bags or pouches on the walls of the colon and diverticulitis,
- cataracts and blindness,
- liver disease,
- anemia or deficiency of red blood cells,
- bleeding or rupture of the cyst,
- high blood pressure,
- liver failure,
- kidney stones,
- cardiovascular disease.
The treatment of polycystic kidney disease is mainly based on alleviating symptoms and avoiding complications. The most important part of treatment is to control high blood pressure.
- the use of analgesic drugs (except for the ibuprofen, which may adversely affect the kidneys),
- the use of medicines to lower blood pressure,
- use of antibiotics in case of inflammatory conditions,
- the use of low-sodium diet,
- the use of diuretics, which allow removing excess fluid from the body,
- surgery, which allows make the drainage of cysts and helps to alleviate discomfort.
Advanced polycystic kidney disease can cause renal failure, which at the time becomes necessary dialysis and even the removal of one or both of the affected kidney.