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Uremia is a clinical condition in which the level of blood urea nitrogen (rate of nitrogenous waste) is elevated. It is a kidney disease that as a result of the failure, can not filter properly nitrogen transformation, whereby an excess of metabolic waste appears in the bloodstream, which is toxic to the body.
Uremia may be hazardous to the health and even life, and its symptoms may include disorientation loss of consciousness, low urine output, dry mouth, fatigue, weakness, pale skin, problems with blood clotting, tachycardia (rapid heartbeat), edema, and excessive thirst. This disease can be extremely painful.
Uremia may be reversible, if fast enough, the patient will be taken under medical care. In the opposite case, the disease can cause permanent kidney damage. Often underlying renal failure, lies the process of uremia.
The symptoms of uremia
Uremic symptoms are associated with kidney damage, as occur due to problems with filtration of waste nitrogen which, in turn, accumulate in the blood stream poison the body.
Uremic symptoms are usually sudden and severe, include:
- stomach pain,
- confusion, loss of consciousness, even for a brief moment,
- dry mouth and nose,
- susceptibility to bruising,
- excessive thirst,
- fatigue and general weakness,
- low blood pressure,
- pale skin.
There are some occasions in which the state of uremia, may seriously threaten the health and even life, so if there appears the feeling of mixing, loss of consciousness and problems with urination, should immediately go to the doctor.
Since the disease is caused by impaired renal function, which does not filter properly metabolism products, the cause may be essentially any organ damage. The most common are:
- autoimmune disorders,
- use of certain drugs, such as high doses of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or intravenous contrast agent,
- kidney damage caused by hypertension and diabetes,
- renal diseases like kidney stones, kidney failure, and other renal anomalies,
- problems associated with disruption of the natural flow of urine,
- failure or embolism, which is blocked blood flow to the kidneys,
- recent surgery,
- kidney damage due to trauma and others.
Uremia can also result from other conditions that lead to a reduced volume of blood or impede blood flow to:
- congestive heart failure (deterioration in the ability of the heart to pump blood),
- dehydration – shortages of body fluids and electrolytes, have an impact on the condition of the kidneys and may be life-threatening,
- excessive bleeding,
- excessive vomiting,
- excessive diarrhea.
The disease can also be appearing on the occasion of other conditions that increase the risk of its occurrence as:
- low blood pressure – hypotension,
- the appearance of infection,
- use of certain medications.
The treatment of uremia
The treatment of uremia usually requires hospitalization. Initiation of treatment involves the removal of the causes of the low blood flow to the kidneys and then focuses on the removal of metabolic waste (nitrogen) from the blood to restore the proper volume and natural sound pressure in the bloodstream. In the course of treatment, may also be needed the action to prevent the accumulation of waste and prevent possible damage to the kidneys.
In the event of an acute attack of uremia, the most important are to stabilize the body, and also removing the causes of uremia. Immediate treatment usually involves blood transfusions, fluid therapy, the use of blood products, hemodialysis (filtering of blood outside the body), hospitalization, administration of intravenous fluids and medications that increase blood pressure and cardiac output (such as dopamine).
Among the complications of uremia, which can appear at too late medical reaction is irreversible kidney damage, and even life threatening. Adopt the recommendations laid the doctor can help eliminate complications such as:
- hemorrhagic disorders as problems with blood clotting or of blood platelets dysfunction,
- stopping the blood circulation,
- excessive bone fragility,
- renal failure,
- respiratory failure and breathing problems,
- difficulties with sexual dysfunction,
- malnutrition (difficulty in absorbing nutrients).