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Anxiety disorders are common psychiatric disorder in which there may be physical symptoms associated with stress. These problems include disorders that share the characteristics of excessive fear and anxiety, and behavioral disorders.
Every human being occasionally feels some anxiety, and this is a typical emotional reaction. However, for some disorders, anxiety disorders can cause pain that interferes with the ability to lead a normal life.
Among the types of anxiety disorders are:
- Fears panic that causes a feeling of awe-striking suddenly, often unexpectedly. During a panic attack may appear an excessive sweating, chest pain, palpitations (usually very strong, or irregular heartbeat), as well as a feeling of choking. The person may experience symptoms similar to those of a heart attack or have the impression that “going crazy.”
- Social phobia – related to the patient’s overwhelming concern associated with everyday social situations. Fear, very often focuses on fear, before judging by the others or behavior in a way that could cause embarrassment or lead to ridicule.
- Specific phobias, in turn, intense fear of certain situations or objects, such as being on the heights or water. The level of concern is here generally inadequate to the situation and can cause the patient avoidance of some common, everyday situations.
- General anxiety disorders that involve abnormal, unrealistic stress or tension, even in situations which should not provoke similar sensations.
The causes of anxiety disorders
The exact cause of the occurrence of anxiety disorders is not known, but such disturbances are due to similar to that of other forms of mental illness. They are not the result of personal weakness, character flaws, and bad manners.
It is evident, however, is that anxiety disorders are caused by a combination of factors, including changes in the brain and environmental stress.
This health problem may contribute to disturbances in the functioning of brain circuits that are responsible for the regulation of fear and excitement. Studies have shown that heavy or prolonged stress causes changes in the nerve cells, including the systems transmitting information between different regions of the brain.
During the tests, it was also found that certain anxiety disorders, can cause changes in certain brain regions that control memories of intense emotions. Also, it was demonstrated that stress disorder could occur in the same family, which means that they may have a genetic basis. Often no small significance in the emergence of diseases is environmental factors, where as a result of trauma, can be turned innate tendency to develop the disease.
The symptoms of anxiety disorders
Symptoms depend on the type of anxiety disorders, but occur most frequently:
- feelings of panic, fear, and anxiety,
- problems with sleeping,
- cold or sweaty hands and feet,
- heart palpitations,
- difficulties calming down,
- dry mouth,
- numbness or tingling in the hands and feet,
- muscle tension,
Diagnosis and treatment of anxiety disorders
Treatment of anxiety disorders is different depending on the type of symptoms and problems, however, the most commonly used:
- Pharmacological treatment – antidepressants, anticonvulsants, and some antipsychotics in small doses or other drugs to reduce anxiety.
- Psychotherapy – the type of counseling in which specialist helps the patient through a conversation that allows us to understand and cope with fears.
- Cognitive behavioral therapy – a particular kind of psychotherapy in which the person affected by fears, learn to recognize and change thought patterns and behaviors that lead to troublesome feelings.
- Changes in lifestyle and diet – by limiting caffeinated products, the introduction of herbal, or start physical activity.
- Relaxation therapy.