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Sarcoidosis is an inflammatory disease, in which the kernels or lumps of inflammatory cells appear in various organs, causing the inflammation. Sarcoidosis can be a response of the immune system to foreign substances such as viruses, bacteria or chemicals.
The causes of sarcoidosis
The exact cause of sarcoidosis is not known, but certain factors can increase the risk of its occurrence. Among them are:
- sex – sarcoidosis affects women more often than men,
- it may have a genetic basis because the appearance of the disease in the family can increase the risk,
- the disease occurs most often in people aged between 20 to 40 years.
The symptoms of sarcoidosis
Sarcoidosis is a disease which in many cases does not show any symptoms, but if it appears, however, include:
- excessive fatigue and weakness,
- high fever,
- weight loss,
- dryness of the mouth,
- nose bleeding,
- difficulty in breathing,
- hypersensitivity to light,
- numbness of the face,
- a swelling of the abdomen.
The symptoms vary, however, depending on which part of the body affects the disease. Sarcoidosis can occur primarily in any organ, but most often it affects the lungs. The symptoms of pulmonary diseases include:
- a dry cough,
- shortness of breath,
- chest pain, usually in the vicinity of the bridge.
The disease is appearing on the skin, can in turn manifest itself by rashes, ulcers, hair loss and bulge scars. When the illness concerns the nervous system, it may also occur convulsions, hearing problems, and even hearing loss and headaches. If, however, it will appear around the eyes, reveals the dryness of the eyes, itching eyes, soreness and burning sensation of the eyeball, and the gradual loss of vision.
Diagnosis and treatment of sarcoidosis
Sarcoidosis does not belong to the diseases easy to diagnose because its symptoms may resemble many other conditions, including arthritis or certain forms of cancer. Accordingly, some tests, starting with:
- assessment of appearing rashes,
- look for any enlarged lymph nodes,
- evaluation of the heart and lungs,
- verify whether there is an enlarged liver or spleen.
Successively, are performed, chest X-ray to check whether there are grains and lymphadenopathy. Additionally, are carried out CT scan of the chest and lungs purity testing and, if necessary, a biopsy of damaged tissue and the complex blood tests (including renal function and liver).
No medication can cure sarcoidosis, because usually, the treatment consists of relieving symptoms. They are used anti-inflammatory drugs, including corticosteroids.
If the disease affects the eyes, lungs, heart or nervous system, the long-term treatment is necessary.
- the cataract – characterized by clouding of the eye lens
- glaucoma – leading to blindness,
- renal failure,
- a heart arrhythmia,
- facial paralysis,
- infertility or difficulty in becoming pregnant,
- in rare cases, severe damage to the heart and lungs, requiring organ transplantation.
Treatment of sarcoidosis usually brings improvement, but some cases are extremely chronic and long-term form of the disease.