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Tuberculous lymphadenitis is a very rare manifestation of the disease, mainly caused by a bacterium tuberculosis – Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It is a symptom of extrapulmonary tuberculosis.
This is a condition that is different from that associated with disease and the symptoms, and the diagnosis is not easy to evaluate. It is a condition that occurs relatively frequently in patients with HIV – negative syndrome and immune reconstitution HIV – positive. It occurs most often in patients aged 30-40 years, and it is also more common among women and patients of Asian origin.
The causes of tuberculous lymphadenitis
Tuberculous lymph nodes often are not associated with the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium Bovis, because they were substantially eliminated as the source of infection in developed countries. The risk of their appearance is most often associated with the consumption of unpasteurized milk.
Tuberculous lymphadenitis, however, is caused by other bacteria and certain fungi. For non-infectious causes belong cancers, sarcoidosis, Castleman’s disease, the response to medication, and non-specific reactive hyperplasia.
The symptoms of tuberculous lymphadenitis
Tuberculous lymph nodes usually manifested by progressive, painless swelling of the lymph nodes. These symptoms usually last from 1-2 months, but it happens that it is up to 8 months. According to the research, men duration of symptoms is longer than for women.
Other symptoms may include:
- severe weight loss.
Diagnosis and treatment of tuberculous lymphadenitis
To diagnose tuberculosis of the lymph nodes, it is necessary to determine the type of bacteria that contributed to the disease. The most invasive research method is a biopsy, but this is the most sensitive, fast and enables more efficiently and successfully respond.
Among the primary methods of treatment should be mentioned antibiotics, which is used even for six months. Most recommend antibiotic is isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol, which are often used in various combinations or during the treatment period.
Another therapeutic method of tuberculous lymphadenitis is steroid therapy, involving the use of corticosteroids, but this is not guaranteed way. Sometimes, during steroid treatment, patients made worse symptoms.
Surgical excision of lesions is used in exceptional circumstances. It is combined with antibiotics and has beneficial results. However, the procedure should be performed as a last resort, and it is particularly helpful in people who are resistant to other forms of treatment.